Manoj Kumar, Garima Sharma, Dinesh Singla, Sukhjeet Singh, Vandita Kakkar, Jaspreet S. Gulati and Indu P. Kaur* Pages 495 - 510 ( 16 )
Background: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is widely employed in the treatment of various proliferative and inflammatory diseases. However, its therapeutic efficacy is imperiled due to its poor solubility and stability. Latter was surmounted by its incorporation into a solid matrix of lipidic nanoparticles (SLNs).
Methods: ATRA loaded SLNs (ATRA-SLNs) were prepared using a novel microemulsification technique (USPTO 9907758) and an optimal composition and were characterized in terms of morphology, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and powder X-ray diffraction studies (PXRD). In vitro release, oral plasma pharmacokinetics (in rats) and stability studies were also done.
Results: Rod-shaped ATRA-SLNs could successfully incorporate 3.7 mg/mL of ATRA, increasing its solubility (from 4.7 μg/mL) by 787 times, having an average particle size of 131.30 ± 5.0 nm and polydispersibility of 0.283. PXRD, DSC, and FTIR studies confirmed the formation of SLNs. Assay/total drug content and entrapment efficiency of ATRA-SLNs was 92.50 ± 2.10% and 84.60 ± 3.20% (n=6), respectively, which was maintained even on storage for one year under refrigerated conditions as an aqueous dispersion. In vitro release in 0.01 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) with 3% tween 80 was extended 12 times from 2h for free ATRA to 24 h for ATRA-SLNs depicting Korsmeyer Peppas release. Oral administration in rats showed 35.03 times enhanced bioavailability for ATRA-SLNs.
Conclusion: Present work reports preparation and evaluation of bioenhanced ATRA-SLNs containing a high concentration of ATRA (>15 times than that reported by others). Latter is attributed to the novel preparation process and intelligent selection of components.
Lay Summary: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) shows an array of pharmacological activities but its efficacy is limited due to poor solubility, stability and side effects. In present study its solubility and efficacy is improved by 787 and 35.5 times, respectively upon incorporation into solid lipid nanoparticles (ATRA-SLNs). Latter extended its release by 12 times and provided stability for at least a year under refrigeration. A controlled and sustained release will reduce dose related side effects. ATRA-SLNs reported presently can thus be used in treatment /prophylaxis of disorders like cancers, tuberculosis, age related macular degeneration and acne and as an immune-booster.
Bioavailability, cancers, extended release, immune booster, pharmacokinetics, rats, solubility.
Department of Pharmaceutics, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, Department of Pharmaceutics, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, Panacea Biotec Ltd., Lalru, Punjab 140501, Panacea Biotec Ltd., Lalru, Punjab 140501, Department of Pharmaceutics, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, Hitech Formulations Pvt. Ltd., Chandigarh 160002, Department of Pharmaceutics, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014