Navneet Sharma, Rakesh Kumar Sharma, Rajeev Goel, Mani Silambarasan and Dharam Pal Pathak Pages 228 - 238 ( 11 )
Background: Radiological contamination is the presence of the unwanted radioactive material in the form of dust, particle or liquid droplets. Several macro-formulations and nano-formulations have been developed for skin decontamination. These includes simple soap solutions, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) & Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) lotion formulations and p-tertbutylcalixarene Nanoemulsion. Rapid, sensitive and specific techniques need to be employed for evaluation of decontamination efficacy of such formulations.
Objective: Current review highlights the various technologies available for the evaluation of the efficacy of Macro- and Nano-formulations for removal of radiological contamination from skin. These include Whole Body Counting (WBC), Gamma Scintigraphy, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES) and ICP- Mass Spectroscopy (MS).
Method: Contamination of selected skin patch of experimental animal with radioactive compounds and its subsequent decontamination using cotton swaps dipped in formulation following swirling motion, and mounting of rat skin on Franz cells, was employed in these studies.
Conclusion: There are several techniques available for the evaluation of the decontamination efficacy of the topical formulations. These techniques are based on the qualitative/quantitative estimation of radionuclides and the evaluation of the sequestering/complexation capability of the formulation on the skin. There is a need to adopt suitable technique for the evaluation of the external/internal contamination with respect to addressing the issue of decontamination efficacy evaluation and incorporation of radioactivity inside the body.
Radiological decontamination, nanoformulations, whole body counter, gamma scientigraphy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, radiation detection.
Division of CBRN Defence, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Brig. S. K. Mazumdar Road, Delhi 110 054, India.