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Features of Bioaccumulation and Toxic Effects of Copper (II) Oxide Nanoparticles Under Repeated Oral Exposure in Rats

Author(s):

Mark Sergeevich Stepankov, Marina Aleksandrovna Zemlyanova, Nina Vladimirovna Zaitseva*, Anna Mikhailovna Ignatova and Alena Evgenievna Nikolaeva  

Abstract:


Background: Currently, the range of copper (II) oxide nanoparticles’ (CuO NPs) applications is expanding and the global production of CuO NPs is increasing. In this regard, the risk of exposure of the population to this nanomaterial increases.

Objective: The aim of the study is to investigate the patterns of bioaccumulation and toxic effects of CuO NPs after multiple oral exposures.

Methods: The particle size was determined by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic laser light scattering. Specific surface area was measured by the method of Brunauer, Emmett, Teller. Total pore volume - by the method of Barrett, Joyner, Khalenda. Twenty-four hours after the final exposure, blood samples were taken for biochemical and hematological analysis, and internal organs were taken to determine their mass, copper concentration and histological analysis. The study was carried out in comparison with copper (II) oxide microparticles (CuO MPs).

Results: In terms of size, surface area, and pore volume, the studied copper (II) oxide sample is a nanomaterial. The median lethal dose of CuO NPs was 13187.5 mg/kg of body weight. Bioaccumulation occurs in the stomach, blood, intestines, liver, lungs, kidneys and brain. Pathomorphological changes in the liver are manifested in the form of necrosis, degeneration, hepatitis; kidney - proliferation of mesangial cells, dystrophy; stomach - gastritis; small intestine - hyperplasia, enteritis; large intestine - colitis; lungs - hyperplasia, abscess, pneumonia, bronchitis, vasculitis. Clumps of brown pigment were detected in the kidneys, stomach and lungs. The mass of the stomach and intestines increased, the mass of the liver, kidneys and lungs decreased. Pathomorphological changes in organs are likely to cause an increase in the levels of activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, amylase, malondialdehyde concentration and a decrease in plasma antioxidant activity. The proportion of segmented neutrophils, the number of leukocytes are raised, the proportion of lymphocytes is reduced.

Conclusion: The degree of bioaccumulation and toxicity of CuO NPs are more expressed in relation to CuO MPs.

Keywords:

copper (II) oxide, nanoparticles, microparticles, oral exposure, toxicity, rats.

Affiliation:

Federal Scientific Center for Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies Perm, Federal Scientific Center for Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies Perm, Federal Scientific Center for Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies Perm, Federal Scientific Center for Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies Perm, Federal Scientific Center for Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies Perm



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