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Effect of The Surfactant and Liquid Lipid Type in The Physico-chemical Characteristics of Beeswax-based Nanostructured Lipid Carrier (NLC) of Metformin


Mona Qushawy*   Pages 1 - 10 ( 10 )


Background: Metformin (MF) is an antidiabetic drug that belongs to class III of the biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) which is characterized by high solubility and low permeability.

Objective: The study aimed to prepare metformin as nanostructured lipid carriers (MF-NLCs) to control the drug release and enhance its permeability through the biological membrane.

Method: 22 full factorial design was used to make the design of MF-NLCs formulations. MF-NLCs were prepared by hot-melt homogenization-ultra sonication technique using beeswax as solid lipid in presence of liquid lipid (either capryol 90 or oleic acid) and surfactant (either poloxamer 188 or tween 80).

Results: The entrapment efficiency (EE%) of MF-NLCs was ranged from 85.2±2.5 to 96.5±1.8%. The particle size was in the nanoscale (134.6±4.1 to 264.1±4.6 nm). The value of zeta potential has a negative value ranged from -25.6±1.1 to -39.4±0.9 mV. The PDI value was in the range of (0.253±0.01 to 0.496±0.02). The cumulative drug release was calculated for MF-NLCs and it was found that Q12h ranged from 90.5±1.7 % for MF-NLC1 to 99.3±2.8 for MF-NLC4. Infra-red (IR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies revealed the compatibility of the drug with other ingredients. MF-NLC4 was found to the optimized formulation with the best responses.

Conclusion: 22 full factorial design succeed to obtain an optimized formulation which controls the drug release and increases the drug penetration.


Metformin (MF), Nanostructured lipid carrier (NLCs), Bees wax, Optimization, permeability.


Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Tabuk, Tabuk 71491

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