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Multi-organ Toxicity Attenuation by Cerium Oxide and Yttrium Oxide Nanoparticles: Comparing the Beneficial Effects on Tissues Oxidative Damage Induced by Sub-acute Exposure to Diazinon

[ Vol. 8 , Issue. 3 ]

Author(s):

Mona Navaei-Nigjeh, Marzieh Daniali, Mahban Rahimifard and Mohammad R. Khaksar*   Pages 225 - 238 ( 14 )

Abstract:


Background: Excessive use of diazinon, as an organophosphate pesticide (OP), contributes to cytotoxic and pathologic cellular damage and, in particular, oxidative stress. However, metal-oxide nanoparticles (NPs), such as cerium oxide (CeO2) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3), with the property of free radical scavenging demonstrated beneficial effects in the alleviation of oxidative stress biomarkers.

Objective: The aims of this study include evaluating beneficial effects of CeO2 NPs, Y2O3 NPs, and their combination against diazinon-induced oxidative stress in different tissues of brain, heart, lung, kidney, liver, and spleen.

Methods: Eight randomized groups of 6 adult male Wistar rats were formed. Each group of rats administered a different combination of diazinon, CeO2 and Y2O3 NPs daily and levels of oxidative stress markers, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), total thiol molecules (TTM) and total anti-oxidant power (TAP) and catalase enzyme, were measured after 2 weeks of the treatment.

Results: Measurements of the mentioned markers in the brain, heart, lung, kidney, liver, and spleen showed that the administration of NPs could significantly alleviate the oxidative stress induced by diazinon. However, the findings of this study illustrated that the combination of both CeO2 and Y2O3 NPs led to a better reduction in oxidative stress markers.

Conclusion: Sub-acute exposure of diazinon in rats led to increased levels of oxidative stress markers in pivotal tissues such as the brain, heart, lung, kidney, liver, and spleen. CeO2 and Y2O3 NPs neutralize the oxidative stress to compensate diazinon-induced tissue damages.

Lay Summary: Organophosphate pesticides (OPs), which are mainly used for pest control, are responsible for the entry of pesticides into the human food cycle. Organophosphate such as diazinon increases the molecular biomarkers of oxidative stress inside the cells of vital tissues such as the heart, liver, lungs, etc. Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) such as cerium oxide (CeO2) and yitrium oxide (Y2O3) can have free radical scavenging potential under oxidative stress and through various mechanisms. Although these nanoparticles reduce oxidative stress, it should be borne in the design of the study that additional doses of these substances reverse the beneficial effects.

Keywords:

Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle, Diazinon, Lipid Peroxidation (LPO), Oxidative Stress, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), Total Antioxidant Power (TAP), Total Thiol Molecules (TTM), Yttrium Oxide Nanoparticles.

Affiliation:

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, The Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (TIPS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, The Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (TIPS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Department of Occupational Health, Faculty of Health, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom



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