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Nanotechnology in Insulin Delivery for Management of Diabetes

[ Vol. 7 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Fatemah Bahman, Khaled Greish* and Sebastien Taurin*   Pages 113 - 128 ( 16 )

Abstract:


Diabetes is a group of diseases characterized by hyperglycemia and rising from the deficiency or the resistance to insulin, or both. Ultimately, the most effective treatment for patients with diabetes involves the subcutaneous injections of insulin. However, this route of administration is often painful and inconvenient as most patients will have to self-administer at least twice a day for the rest of their lives. Also, infection, insulin precipitation, and either lipoatrophy or lipohypertrophy are frequently observed at the site of injection. To date, several alternative routes of insulin administration have been explored, including nasal, pulmonary and oral. Although oral delivery of insulin is an ideal route for diabetic patients, there are several limitations have to be overcome such as rapid destruction of insulin in the gastric fluid and low oral bioavailability. Numerous strategies have been carried out to improve these limited parameters such as the use of enzyme inhibitors, absorption enhancers, mucoadhesive polymers and chemical modification for receptor-mediated absorption. Also, insulin-loaded nanocarriers to bypass the several physiological barriers. This current review focuses on the various barriers existing the delivery of insulin through the oral route and the strategies undertaken so far to overcome those obstacles using nanocarriers as a potential vehicle of insulin.

Keywords:

Diabetes mellitus, insulin analog, insulin, nanoparticles, nasal delivery, oral delivery, pulmonary delivery.

Affiliation:

Department of Molecular Medicine, Princess Al-Jawhara Centre for Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine and Medical sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Department of Molecular Medicine, Princess Al-Jawhara Centre for Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine and Medical sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Department of Molecular Medicine, Princess Al-Jawhara Centre for Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine and Medical sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama



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